Communityship and Followership

Drucker (1952), Levitt (1960/2004), Drucker (1969), Kerr (1975), and Peters (1978) offer insight into the prevailing management wisdom of the mid-20th century; yet, Mintzberg (2013) questions it. Combine these sources with those of your own research to answer the following questions:

What is an “open systems” model of management, and how does it lead to innovation and growth?
What attitudes about gender, race, and equity are implied in management thinking of the mid-20th century?

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Using the Manderino Library 1950-1979 holdings for Harvard Business Review, Academy of Management Journal, and Academy of Management Review, determine prevailing attitudes toward followers (rather than leaders), followership, and communityship within organizations. Compare those views with holdings since 1980-1999, and 2000-present. Review of the tables of contents of these journals make a great starting point, as do word searches to answer these questions:

What can you infer about changing attitudes toward followers, followership, and communityship in each era?
What are the benefits and limitations of including integrating these topics into management theory and practice?

When crafting the answers to these questions, please remember to integrate and cite the assigned materials. Consider bringing in additional support for your assertions. As you do, remember to both cite and reference them.

Be sure to make connections between the assigned materials and your ideas. Include a reference list at the end of your submission.

Try to respond to learners with perspectives different from your own in order to demonstrate your understanding of other frameworks and perspectives.


Drucker, P. F. (1952). Management and the professional employee. Harvard Business Review, 30(5), 84-90.

Drucker, P. F. (1963). Managing for business effectiveness. Harvard Business Review, 41(3), 53-60.

Drucker, P. F. (1969). Management’s new role. Harvard Business Review, 47(6), 49-55.

Kerr, S. (1975). On the folly of rewarding A, while hoping for B. Academy of Management Journal, 18(4), 769-783.

Levitt, T. (2004). Marketing myopia. 1960. Harvard Business Review, 82(7-8), 138-149.

Mintzberg, H. (2013). Simply managing. Berrett-Koehler.

Peters, T. J. (1978). Symbols, patterns, and settings: An optimistic case for getting things done. Organizational Dynamics, 7(2), 3-23.

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