Synthesis Paper/Leadership Behavior

I need a Doctoral Level Synthesis paper that focuses on Leadership Behavior. I have the annotated bibliography with professor remarks and the sources listed. The paper needs to focus on the outline I presented along with the professor corrections and the information in the bibliography. The EXACT sources listed must be used within the paper itself as it is a synthesis paper. Please do not indicated you can do this paper if you do not know how to write a synthesis paper. Please let me know if you have any further questions. Thank you!


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General Requirements:

Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:

· Refer to the annotated bibliography and outline you created in the Module 5 assignment along with the assignment feedback from your instructor.

· Locate at least two additional, topically-related, empirical articles. Use “Empirical Research Checklist” to guide your selection.

· This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.



Locate the annotated bibliography and outline you created in the Module 5 assignment. Using the outline you developed, the information from the annotated bibliography, and the feedback provided by your instructor, write a paper (2,000-2,250 words) that synthesizes all three articles from the Module 5 annotated bibliography with the two (or more) topically-related, empirical articles you selected. Do that by including the following:

1. A statement of at least three common themes addressed in all of the articles.

2. A statement of the conclusions that can be drawn when the articles are taken together as a single entity. What is the overall message of the group of articles? Focus specifically on how leadership behavior influences leadership results. How might identity, worldview, and socio-cultural group membership influence the behaviors that effective leaders exhibit?

















Annotated Bibliography

Lai, F.-Y., Tang, H.-C., & Lu, S.-C. (2020). Transformational leadership and job performance: The mediating role of work engagement. SAGE Open, 10(1).

The article focuses on how transformational leaders inspire their followers to engage in their work in a more productive way, engaging in performance and working towards bettering behaviors. The authors focus on a leader’s ability to motivate their followers to perform job-related duties and deal with the organizational changes occurring on a daily basis. If a leader is able to understand how to motivate their follower, they can use that ability to enable followers to perform job duties otherwise not included in job descriptions. A leader’s behavior could help to change the follower’s behavior which can in turn, enhance task performance. The article focuses on the effectiveness and benefits of transformational leadership while also trying to understand the behavior component and relationship between leader and follower.

Data from two hospitals was used with information collected from both leaders and followers. The study was completed using a multitemporal design with time given to explain the questionnaires as related to transformational leadership. The authors admit there were limitations within the study with discussion on generalizability of findings and a limitation of design of the model used for the study itself. The study showed important indications of transformational leadership including a tendency for leaders who show a compassionate behavior towards their followers will contribute to them doing better with work performance. It can then be concluded that transformational leadership induces a behavior in which followers are more apt to engage in work, wanting to better and achieve goals, and exceed expectations of the leaders themselves and achieving organizational goals.

Hayyat Malik, S. (2012). A study of relationship between leader behaviors and subordinate job expectancies: A path-goal approach. Pakistan Journal of Commerce & Social Sciences, 357-371.

In this article, the author used the path-goal model of leadership to explore the relationship between a leader’s management skills and how that reflects on an employee’s expectations. Goal achievements were addressed within the article, more specifically, the way in which leaders should use factors to help with the vision of the organization. The article addresses participative leadership skills and the importance of these skills from the follower’s standpoint. Directive and competitive leadership are discussed with directive leaders helping to influence followers as to goal achievements and organizational vision.

The author’s aim in the study was to see if the path-goal model could be used to discern leadership structures within an organization. In the study, several levels of leadership, along with their followers were included with the conclusion being leadership behavior does affect follower performance, thereby, predictions can be ascertained as to what is expected of a followers job expectations and performance. Of importance to note is that the study left age, gender, and job status out of the variable mix which then gave clarity to the study itself in that job influence was not linked to follower expectancy.

Saxena, S. (2014). Are transformational leaders creative and creative leaders transformational? An attempted synthesis through the big five factor model of personality lens. Aweshkar Research Journal, 18(2), 30-51.

The article entails a study that uses the Big Five Factor Model of personality to try to understand a leader who is both creative and transformational. An overview of the five factors are discussed within the article including neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Neuroticism is not a necessary trait for a leader to possess as this is often associated with leadership that is more negative with anger and vulnerability. Leadership needs to have a conscientiousness trait so as to ensure the organization is compliant and goal-oriented. Extraversion is also a personality trait a leader should possess with a dominant behavior but also comprising of compassion and positivity which is important as a strong leader needs to motivate their followers to engage in work. Also, noted within the article is an openness to experience which gives way to a leader’s creativity and thus helps their followers to be more open and expressive. Agreeableness helps a leader to interact with their followers with kindness and warmth.Transformational leadership and its correlation to these five models of personality were analyzed in the study and how their application can be used within an organization.

The study comprised of peer-reviewed articles which comprised of materials showing successful transformational leadership using the five model personality traits. The article was able to show that leaders are able to use the five model characteristics to motivated and encourage their followers to take initiative and goal driven within their organization.






I. Introduction

A. Transformational leadership will be analyzed as it is in the comparison between leaders using behaviors to invoke followers to better their work performance and achieve organizational goals.

B. Also being analyzed is the path-goal theory which gives the indication that the behaviors of leaders can have a direct correlation towards their follower’s goal-driven job performance.

C. The Big Five-Factor Model of personality will also be discussed with information as to the creativity of transformative leadership and how this helps in organizational success.


II. Theme

A. Responsibility: Leadership encompasses a responsibility to ensure the well-being of all those involved within the organization while acting along ethical guidelines. Transformational leadership brings forth characteristics of leaders which entails responsibility to ensure their followers are staying within the moral, ethical, and legal boundaries of their job description and job performance.

B. Motivation: Leadership must encompass openness and willingness to do what is right for their organization while understanding and listening to their followers who bring about new ideas which could prove to benefit the organization itself.

C. Optimism: Leaders need to create an environment that strives towards organizational improvements.


II. Conclusion

Transformational leadership encompasses leaders who help to motivate their followers to be goal-driven within the organization. Leaders must also work within the ethical boundaries and be responsible for the behaviors they exemplify towards their followers so as to encourage them to do better and be better. The three themes will be discussed within the paper, along with recommendations for future studies and future use of transformational leadership.








Cekmecelioglu, H. G., & Ozabag, G. K. (2016). Leadership and creativity: The impact of transformational leadership on individual creativity. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 235, 243-249. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.11.020

Hayyat Malik, S. (2012). A study of relationship between leader behaviors and subordinate job expectancies: A path-goal approach. Pakistan Journal of Commerce & Social Sciences, 357-371.

Lai, F.-Y., Tang, H.-C., & Lu, S.-C. (2020). Transformational leadership and job performance: The mediating role of work engagement. SAGE Open, 10(1). doi:10.1177/2158244019899085

Niu, X., Wang, X., & Xiao, H. (2018). What motivates environmental leadership behaviour-An empirical analysis in Taiwan. Journal of Asian Public Policy, 11(2), 173-187.

Pieterse, A. N., Van Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M., & Stam, D. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 609-623. doi:10.1002/job.650

Saxena, S. (2014). Are transformational leaders creative and creative leaders transformational? An attempted synthesis through the big five factor model of personality lens. Aweshkar Research Journal, 18(2), 30-51.






Professor Comments

Your thesis statement needs work as does the outline. Make certain you have a thesis statement, which can also serve as a statement of common themes. For example, you could create a statement of common themes (which could also serve as a thesis statement) such as: Three themes that emerge from the literature are X, Y, and Z. Then, your outline should look like this –

I. Introduction (including thesis statement)

II. X (the first theme)

III. Y (the second theme)

IV. Z (the third theme)

V. Conclusion (including a concluding statement that contains the three themes)


The introduction should flow into the themes. What you indicate in your introduction does not contain such a flow. Additionally, you do not have a statement of common themes or thesis statement. Thus, based on the three themes you identified, your introduction should include information concerning leadership leading to a thesis statement.

Example, Common themes that emerge from the leadership literature include responsibility, motivation, and optimism.


Each of these themes should be a major heading. Thus, rather than II being Theme, II should be Responsibility, III should be Motivation, and IV should be Optimism. V. should be conclusion


First, in the conclusion the themes were discussed. Second, you will not be making recommendations for future studies or future use of transformational leadership. Note, the conclusion should not introduce new information. The conclusion should summarize what is in the synthesis.

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