midterm essay

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You should choose one question from each of the following two groups (total of two questions) to answer in a 2-3 page typed essay (each essay is 2-3 pages, for a total of 4-6 pages) to be submitted on canvas. Page formatting is double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font, 1” margins, and the minimum number of pages does not include the bibliography at the end. Answers must be in essay form, NOT a list or rambling discussion., and must include specific examples that address the question. The essay must have clear paragraph breaks that organize your discussion.

Question group 1: (answer 1)

A. Compare and contrast the Clovis First, Pre-Clovis, and Early Arrival models of human migration to the Americas. In your answer be specific and be sure to explain:

What are the basic features of each model?
When (what time in years before present) each model states that humans FIRST came to the Americas.
How each model believes people came to the Americas (by what route, by what means).
What key archaeological sites are argued to support each model? List at least 2 sites per model. For each site, make sure you say where the site is located, and what evidence (according to the excavators) at that site supports the model.
What are the problems, if any, with each model, and what evidence, if any, contradicts the model.
Which model do you find most convincing and why?

B. Who was Ishi and how is his life story exemplary of the history of European American – Native American interactions over the last 500 years? In your answer, be specific and be sure to address:

Ishi’s identity – when and where he lived.
What happened to Ishi’s remains after his death.
Connect Ishi’s experience in life and death to the history of archaeology in America before and after his passing, including the activities recounted in the film Who Owns The Past, and changes since the passage of NAGPRA.
Identify ethical and moral issues surrounding Ishi’s story and the development of the field of archaeology in America.
Identify solutions to the ethical and moral issues of Ishi’s story; how can we avoid repeating the mistakes of the past and forge a better road ahead?


Question group 2: (answer 1)

C. Compare and contrast the lifeways of Plains Bison hunters with Plains Village farmers. In your answer be specific and be sure to address the following (but not necessarily in the order listed):

Describe the biome and culture area of the Plains.
Reference specific archaeological sites, artifacts, animals, etc. to illustrate your discussion (i.e. don’t be vague).
Describe how the plains bison hunters and plains village farmers lifestyles were similar or different, using specific examples not vague generalities.
Highlight trends over time, such as cultural or material traits that stayed the same or changed.
Identify especially significant cultural or material traits that distinguish each group or mark significant change over time.
Explain how the mode of subsistence and the seasonal availability of resources impacted other aspects of their life, such as material culture, population size, religion, etc.
Discuss the relationship between each group and the local environment, as far as how the weather and climate impacted their lives and how they in turn changed the landscape with their behavior.


D. Explain the development of the field of archaeology from the 18th to 21st What are the major trends in method and theory? In your answer, be specific and be sure to:

Name and describe the paradigms of archaeological inquiry in North America that dominated successive periods of time from the 18th to the 21st
Discuss a total of 3 practitioners of archaeology, each from different paradigms in this time frame, and describe how they exemplified the archaeological practice in their period.
Discuss a total of 3 important discoveries or methodological breakthroughs and explain how they improved archaeology over time.
Explain how archaeology became an academic, professionalized discipline, and why this was beneficial for society.

Source requirements and format for citations for essays

You must cite sources in your essays and include a bibliography at the end. These may include the course textbook, readings, recorded lectures, and films.
Sources must be cited as follows: ( author year: pages #s). For example: Mammoths were sometimes hunted near watering holes, for example at the Blackwater Draw site (Neusius and Gross 2014: 256). This citation indicates that the referenced information is found in a 2014 publication by a person with two people with last names Neusius and Gross, on page 256.
For the example above you should provide a corresponding reference in the bibliography such as:

Neusius, S. W., and Gross, G.T. 2014. Culture and Environment in North America’s Past. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

There is no required format for the bibliography, but please be consistent and include all relevant information (author, date, title, page numbers if relevant, and publisher).


Be careful to avoid plagiarism in your essays. If you are unsure about how to do this, read the Rozakis article posted to canvas. Essays that plagiarize will lose some or all points and may be subject to further penalties, including a failing grade on the exam, in the class, or university disciplinary action. To plagiarize is to present the words or ideas of some else as if they were your own. Plagiarism can also include turning in the same paper or work, even if is your own, in multiple classes. In other words, if you are cutting and pasting from any source, reusing material from another class, or closely following the format/content of another paper, you must cite the source in every instance. This includes websites, books, unpublished papers, lectures, etc. Penalties for plagiarism range from a failing grade on the assignment or course to more comprehensive University disciplinary action. For more information on this topic and university policies, consult the resources on this website: http://www.unco.edu/dean-of-students/offices-resources/student-rights-responsibilities/academic-integrity.aspx

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